Brazil, the largest country in South America and the fifth-largest in the world, covers an expansive area of approximately 8,515,767 square kilometers (3,287,956 square miles). Brazil's geography is nothing short of remarkable, offering everything from the vast Amazon Rainforest in the north to the towering Andes Mountains in the west, to the extensive savannas of the Brazilian Highlands in the southeast. The Amazon River, the world's second-longest river, flows through the heart of the country, feeding the extraordinary Amazon Basin. Coastal regions boast pristine beaches and vibrant cities, including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, while the interior harbors expansive wetlands and waterways like the Pantanal, home to a diverse array of wildlife.
Argentina, the second largest country in South America and the eighth-largest country in the world, boasts an expansive land area of approximately 2,780,400 square kilometers (1,073,500 square miles). Argentina's geography encompasses a wide range of environments, from the Andes Mountains in the west, which include South America's highest peak, Aconcagua, to the fertile plains of the Pampas in the east. These fertile plains support the nation's thriving agricultural industry. The arid regions of Patagonia in the south are known for their rugged beauty, home to glaciers, fjords, and the Tierra del Fuego archipelago.
Peru, located on the western coast of South America, covers an area of approximately 1,285,216 square kilometers (496,093 square miles). Peru's geography is incredibly diverse, offering everything from the arid deserts of the Pacific coast to the rugged Andes Mountains that stretch across the nation, and the lush Amazon Rainforest to the east. The Andes are home to some of the world's highest peaks, including Huascarán, which towers at over 6,700 meters (22,000 feet). The country also boasts significant stretches of the arid Atacama Desert, making it a land of stark contrasts.
Colombia, situated in the northwestern part of South America, encompasses an extensive land area of approximately 1,141,748 square kilometers (440,831 square miles). The country's geography is characterized by the imposing Andes Mountains, which run through its western region and include several peaks exceeding 5,000 meters (16,400 feet). To the east, the Andes give way to vast lowlands, the Llanos, and the immense Amazon Rainforest, featuring lush, tropical terrain and diverse wildlife.
Bolivia, a landlocked country in South America, occupies an extensive area of approximately 1,098,581 square kilometers (424,160 square miles). Bolivia's geography is incredibly varied, featuring the high altiplano (Andean plateau) to the west, which includes the stunning Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake. The Andes Mountains run through the country, with numerous peaks exceeding 6,000 meters (19,685 feet), including Nevado Sajama. To the east, the land descends into the vast lowlands of the Amazon Basin, where dense rainforests, winding rivers, and a wealth of biodiversity flourish.
Venezuela, situated on the northern coast of South America, boasts a land area of approximately 916,445 square kilometers (353,841 square miles). The geography of Venezuela is characterized by a variety of features. The northern coastline stretches along the Caribbean Sea, offering pristine beaches, while the interior is marked by the extensive Orinoco River basin and the Guiana Highlands, home to Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall. To the west, the Andes Mountains extend into Venezuela, providing stunning highland landscapes.
Chile, a long, narrow country in South America, stretches over an area of approximately 756,950 square kilometers (292,260 square miles). It's known for its exceptional geographical diversity, from the arid deserts in the north to the pristine fjords and glaciers in the south. Chile's geography is defined by the rugged Andes Mountains that run the length of the country, providing remarkable landscapes for outdoor enthusiasts. Notably, Ojos del Salado is the highest volcano on Earth, while Patagonia in the south boasts dramatic landscapes, including the Torres del Paine National Park. The country's Pacific coastline extends for over 6,400 kilometers (about 4,000 miles) and includes picturesque beaches and dynamic coastal cities like Valparaíso and Viña del Mar.
Paraguay, a landlocked country in South America, occupies an area of approximately 406,752 square kilometers (about 157,048 square miles). Often referred to as the "Heart of South America," it is known for its unique blend of cultures, modest landscapes, and the Paraguay River that bisects the nation. The geography of Paraguay includes a mix of lowlands, plains, and plateaus. The country is situated in the Gran Chaco region, with the western part being arid and sparsely populated, while the eastern part is more fertile, hosting most of the nation's population.
Ecuador, situated on the northwest coast of South America, occupies an area of approximately 283,561 square kilometers (109,484 square miles). It's a country known for its remarkable diversity, from the majestic Andes Mountains to the lush Amazon Rainforest, and the stunning Galápagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador's geography is astonishingly varied. The Andes Mountains run through the center of the country, featuring towering peaks like Chimborazo, the highest point on Earth when measured from the center of the Earth. The Amazon Basin covers the eastern lowlands, home to some of the world's most biodiverse ecosystems. The Pacific coastline boasts pristine beaches and lively cities like Guayaquil and Manta.
Guyana, a nation on the northern coast of South America, encompasses an area of approximately 214,969 square kilometers (83,000 square miles). Guyana's geography is characterized by the lush Amazon Rainforest in the southern and central regions, and savannas and highlands in the north. The mighty Essequibo River, the largest in the country, is a prominent waterway, while the coastline along the Atlantic Ocean features beaches and estuaries.